Research Ethics Cont.

I looked at Natalie Schaffners blog post from last week and compared her findings to mine. Surprisingly, we found some similar information yet Natalie went into detail about ethics in everyday lives and how its all around us. She says that in every profession, there are ethical norms employees and management should abide by. Many different professions have standards for behavior that suit their particular aims and goals. These standards also help members of the profession to coordinate their actions to establish the public’s trust of the discipline. Natalie emphasis how discipline plays a big part in someone entire life, even when they are adults in the business world.

Natalie then goes in to talk about how norms promote the aim of research. She said that knowledge; truth and avoidance of error are the big three to focus on. I went into a little digging on the big three and found similar results. I found that researchers have had to deal with the ethical issue of a person’s right to service. Good research practice often requires the use of a control group in order to guarantee the big three is in mind.

Natalie also went into detail about how people fail to see different options due to a limited imagination, bias, ignorance, or fear. You want to see if there are any people who can offer ethical advice. It may be useful to seek advice from a colleague, a senior researcher, your department chair, and ethics compliance officer, or anyone else you can trust. This is a big part of research ethics and I found that people fear the lack of confidentiality.

People are sacred to be harmed when being involved in research. Harm can be defined as both physical and psychological. There are two standards that are applied in order to help protect the privacy of research participants. Almost all research guarantees the participants confidentiality and people abide by that. Research ethics really come into play when talking about the person helping out and protecting them is a major part of research ethics.

5 major principles of research ethics


Above is the link to an article by Deborah Smith, a member of the American Physiological Association. Throughout the article, Deborah discuses five major principles for research ethics. The first topic discussed was talking about intellectual property. She went through ways to avoid disagreements within a group on who should get credit for that research and in what order the issues should be talked about. The next section talked about being conscious of multiple roles in a group or persons life. Mrs. Smith said to avoid relationships that could reasonably impair their professional performance. Psychologists should think carefully before entering into multiple relationships with any person or group, such as recruiting students or clients as participants in research studies or investigating the effectiveness of a product of a company whose stock they own.

The third topic mentioned following informed rules. Deborah basically went through a code of ethics to follow when undergoing research and what procedures and research that is unethical. Next, Mrs. Smith talked about respecting people’s confidentiality and privacy. She put emphasis on knowing the state laws and thinking about data sharing before the research even begins. Lastly, Deborah went into detail about how tapping into ethics resources is a great way to avoid and resolve ethical dilemmas. Researchers can help themselves make ethical issues silent by reminding themselves of the basics of research and professional ethics.

I found it most intriguing about how many rules there really are based on ethics code and confidentiality agreements. Another thing learned was that the participant has full say in what he/she does or doesn’t say or do within the research. Also that the participant has the right to decline to participate and to withdraw from the research once it has started, as well as the anticipated consequences of doing so.

I feel the most beneficial thing Deborah touched on for students and professionals is when she talked about giving credit for the research. Minor contributions to the research or to the writing for publications are acknowledged appropriately, such as in footnotes or in an introductory statement.

The same rules apply to students. If they contribute to the concept design or analysis of the research reported, they should be listed as authors. Contributions that are primarily technical don’t warrant authorship.

In the end, there was a lot learned about what and whatnot to do from the article. Deborah went into great detail on 5 major recommendations that help give researches the ability to know what to steer clear of in terms of ethical quandaries. Deborah also says not to forget to think positively about interactions with a participant because it can help smooth the process for both researchers and the participant in the research.

Boundaries No More

Our final project for my Marketing & Research Strategies class is based on the Clothes Closet in Buckhannon, West Virginia. The Clothes Closet supports the Upshur Parish House and are locally run and operated by volunteers in the community. Right now, the lack of volunteers is becoming a burden of the foundation and help is needed. Marketing the Clothes Closet for volunteers is our main focus for our team and for our final project. After reading chapter 16, we will face many potential boundaries and limitations when finding ways to market the opportunity to volunteer at the Clothes Closet.

Some of the potential boundaries include advertising and the unknowns of the target market. Advertising is a big part of the problem for the Clothes Closet because many of the students from the college and people in the community don’t know that it even exists. In order for our team to get volunteers, the right advertising approach will be key. To avoid misleading impression and get a decent amount of feedback from the students, our team must have the perfect way to advertise the Clothes Closet. We can have 2 sample ads which are different in ways they catch peoples eyes. These sample probability ads will give us the ability to see which works best for finding volunteers then post the best ad which will attract th most attention.

Even though we aren’t inventing something, there are still many unknowns we will be dealing with when trying to figure out if our ability to get volunteers will be successful. Market research will likely reduce uncertainty in our ways of advertising and finding volunteers. The unknowns we will be dealing with are if people will see our advertisements and how many people see them then don’t respond to them. The respond rate will be a big factor in our success and finding out ways to improve it will be vital for our success.

Our team will have to face boundaries in order to successfully find volunteers for Clothes Closet. We will me able to overcome these with the proper surveys and advertisements. Also, conducting successful marketing research will further help our team in having a productive final project. The Clothes Closet will be better off when we are done and we hope to have a surplus of volunteers for them to be able to us and help with anything that needs to be done.

-Chad Pinson

Finding the Sample Size

This blog post will include solving a sample size problem the discussing the solution and seeing if it fits the problem. I’m going to solve a problem for a restaurant trying to figure out the average amount spent on a sit-down meal per month by households in a neighborhood. Its believed that households spend anywhere from $0-300 per month. Management from the restaurant wants to be 95 percent confident and wants a margin or error to be plus or minus $5.

In order to find the needed sample size to achieve these goals, the restaurant first must understand that the Z value for a 95% confidence interval is 2.0. Once they found this, the restaurant, will need to do 3 simple steps to figure out the sample size they are looking for.

Step 1: Square the Z value associated with the desired confidence interval.

2 squared= 4

Step 2: Multiply this number by the population variance.

4*.55 percent

Step 3: Divide by the square of the desired precision.

5 squared = 25

After doing these 3 steps, the restaurant will find out that they will find a sample size of about 400 families. This is the number needed in order for the restaurant to achieve their goals in finding what families spend money on sit-down meals. I feel like the sample size is reasonable because of the range of money the restaurant was looking for. $300 range is big margin for the restaurant to search for families in the surrounding areas.

If the restaurant were to lessen the margin range then it would have lowered the sample size needed. The more they raise the amount of money spent by each family, the bigger the sample size needed. The sample size is an important feature of any number study in which the goal is to make inferences about a population from a sample. The restaurant is now able to figure out the average amount spent on a sit-down meal per month by households in a neighborhood because of figuring out the sample size.